emxrt.doc emx 0.9c FIX 00

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emxrt.doc    emx 0.9c FIX 00     USER'S GUIDE TO THE EMX RUNTIME    09-Sep-1996

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                                     Copyright (c) 1990-1996 by Eberhard Mattes


Table of Contents

=================


1     Introduction to the User's Guide to the emx Runtime

1.1     Hardware requirements

1.2     Files included in the emx runtime package

2     License

3     Installing the emx runtime package under OS/2

3.1     Summary for impatient OS/2 users

3.2     Detailed instructions for OS/2 users

4     Installing the emx runtime package under DOS

4.1     Summary for impatient DOS users

4.2     Detailed instructions for DOS users

5     Environment variables (OS/2 and DOS)

5.1     Environment variables (DOS)

6     DOS Notes

6.1     General notes

6.2     Emergency exit

6.3     Using rsx instead of emx

7     emx options

7.1     emx options (OS/2)

7.2     emx options (DOS)

8     The emxstack tool

9     The emxupd tool

9.1     Replacing a DLL

9.2     Deleting a DLL

9.3     Unpacking DLLs from a ZIP file and installing them with emxupd

10    Troubleshooting

10.1    Warning message `WARNING: emx 0.9c or later required'

10.2    unzip.exe says `cannot create emx/dll/emx.dll'

10.3    emx.dll cannot be deleted, renamed or overwritten

10.4    Error message `SYS1804: The system cannot find the file EMX.'

10.5    Error message `rsx not found, DPMI not supported by emx'

10.6    Error message `emx.dll: Stack size too small...'

10.7    DOS message `Sector not found'

11    emx messages

11.1    emx messages (OS/2)

11.2    emx messages (DOS)

12    Obtaining the complete emx package

13    The author of emx



1 Introduction to the User's Guide to the emx Runtime

=====================================================


This is the documentation for the emx runtime package.  The emx

runtime is an environment for 32-bit programs under OS/2 2.x, OS/2 3.x

(OS/2, in short), MS-DOS, and PC-DOS (DOS, in short) on machines with

a 386 CPU (or one of its successors).


Under OS/2, you can view the .inf version of this document by typing


    view \emx\book\emxrt


If you add \emx\book to the BOOKSHELF environment variable, you can

type


    view emxrt


to view that on-line book.



1.1 Hardware requirements

-------------------------


emx requires an 80386 CPU (80386DX, 80386SX, i486, or later)



1.2 Files included in the emx runtime package

---------------------------------------------


The emx runtime package includes the following files:


  \emx\bin\emx.exe              emx runtime for DOS

  \emx\bin\emxbind.exe          Tool for modifying emx programs (DOS and OS/2)

  \emx\bin\emxfpemu             Emulator for numeric coprocessor (DOS)

  \emx\bin\emxl.exe             emx loader (used by emxbind)

  \emx\bin\emxload.exe          Server for keeping OS/2 programs in memory

  \emx\bin\emxrev.cmd           Tool for displaying emx revisions (OS/2)

  \emx\bin\emxstack.exe         Tool for fixing the stack size of old programs

  \emx\bin\emxupd.exe           Tool for updating a DLL which is in use

  \emx\bin\emxuzdll.cmd         Unpack DLLs and install them with emxupd.exe

  \emx\book\emxrt.inf           The text you are looking at (VIEW version)

  \emx\dll\emx.dll              emx runtime for OS/2

  \emx\dll\emxio.dll            Hardware port I/O under OS/2

  \emx\dll\emxlibc.dll          Forwarder DLL to emxlibcm.dll (OS/2)

  \emx\dll\emxlibcm.dll         Multithread C library (OS/2)

  \emx\dll\emxlibcs.dll         Single-thread C library (OS/2)

  \emx\dll\emxwrap.dll          Interface to 16-bit OS/2 functions (OS/2)

  \emx\doc\COPYING              GNU General Public License

  \emx\doc\COPYING.EMX          emx copyright information

  \emx\doc\emxrt.doc            The text you are looking at (text version)

  \emx\etc\termcap.dat          Terminal data base for termcap-based programs

  \emx\etc\emclibcm.map         Map file for emxlibcm.dll

  \emx\etc\emclibcm.tdf         Trace definition file for emxlibm.dll

  \emx\etc\emclibcs.map         Map file for emxlibcs.dll

  \emx\etc\emclibcs.tdf         Trace definition file for emxlibs.dll

  \emx\etc\trc00f8.tff          Trace format file for emxlibcs.dll

  \emx\etc\trc00f9.tff          Trace format file for emxlibcm.dll


The .map, .tdf, and .tff files are used for debugging.  They are

included in emxrt.zip to keep them in sync with the DLLs.



2 License

=========


emx is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under

the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free

Software Foundation; either version 2, or (at your option) any later

version.


emx is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY

WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or

FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License

for more details.


You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License

along with emx; see the file COPYING.  If not, write to the Free

Software Foundation, 59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA

02111-1307, USA.


See \emx\doc\COPYING.EMX and \emx\doc\COPYING for details.



3 Installing the emx runtime package under OS/2

===============================================



3.1 Summary for impatient OS/2 users

------------------------------------


1.  Add \emx\dll to LIBPATH (always use the latest copy of the .dll

    files!)


2.  Add \emx\bin to PATH


3.  Reboot



3.2 Detailed instructions for OS/2 users

----------------------------------------


emx does not work with OS/2 1.x and in DOS mode of OS/2.


Before changing config.sys, make a backup copy of that file!


The emx runtime is implemented as a set of dynamic link libraries

under OS/2:


emx.dll

        emx run-time support for OS/2


emxio.dll

        access to hardware ports for emx programs under OS/2


emxlibc.dll

        forwarder DLL to emxlibcm.dll for existing applications that

        use emxlibc.dll (which has been renamed to emxlibcm.dll)


emxlibcm.dll

        multithread emx C library


emxlibcs.dll

        single-thread emx C library


emxwrap.dll

        32-bit wrappers for 16-bit OS/2 API functions


OS/2 looks for dynamic link libraries in the directories listed in the

LIBPATH statement of your config.sys file.  Note that LIBPATH is not

an environment variable!


At any time, at most one version of a dynamic link library is loaded.

If there are different versions of a dynamic link library in the

directories listed in the LIBPATH statement, the first one listed is

loaded.  If you already have installed the emx dynamic link libraries,

you should be careful to use the latest revision of those dynamic link

libraries.  Newer emx dynamic link libraries work with older emx

programs (however, you may have to apply emxstack), but newer emx

programs don't work with older emx dynamic link libraries.  To find

out about already installed emx dynamic link libraries, type


    cd \emx\bin

    emxrev


If no emx dynamic link libraries are installed, no output is produced.

If there are emx dynamic link libraries installed, the names and

revision numbers are displayed, for instance


    EMX : revision = 30

    EMXIO : revision = 30

    EMXLIBC : revision = 30

    EMXLIBCM : revision = 30

    EMXLIBCS : revision = 30

    EMXWRAP : revision = 30


Only directories listed in the LIBPATH statement are searched.  To

find out the revision numbers of the dynamic link libraries of this

package, type


    emxrev -d c:\emx\dll


if you have put the emx runtime package on drive C.  After running

emxrev, you should quit the command processor by typing


    exit


to release the dynamic link libraries (they have been loaded by

cmd.exe as emxrev is a REXX procedure).  Otherwise, you cannot rename,

overwrite, or delete those files.  This also happens if one of the emx

dynamic link libraries is currently used by a program.  If you get

error message SYS0032, or the message


    error:  cannot create emx/dll/emx.dll


from unzip when unpacking emxrt.zip, use


    pstat /L


to find out about the dynamic link libraries used by the programs

currently running.  Terminate all the programs using emx.dll,

emxio.dll, emxlibc.dll, emxlibcm.dll, emxlibcs.dll, or emxwrap.dll.

The command


    emxload -qw


will unload programs kept in memory by emxload.exe.


If that doesn't help, use emxuzdll to install the emx DLLs: Create a

temporary directory and run emxuzdll in that directory, giving the

path name of emxrt.zip and the path name of the emx DLL directory on

the command line:


    mkdir \emxtmp

    chdir \emxtmp

    emxuzdll a:\emxrt.zip c:\emx\dll

    chdir ..

    rmdir emxtmp


This will replace the DLLs in c:\emx\dll with the DLLs in emxrt.zip

even if the DLLs are in use.  The new versions of the DLLs become

active as soon as the last process referencing them is terminated, or

on the next reboot.  Therefore, you should reboot after running

emxuzdll, otherwise you won't know if and when the new versions become

active.  (Actually, you don't need a temporary directory, any

directory not containing any DLL files will do.)


Either copy the latest revisions of the emx dynamic link libraries

(that is, those with the highest revision numbers) to a directory

directory listed in the LIBPATH statement of config.sys or, better,

modify the LIBPATH statement to include the directory where the latest

revisions of the emx dynamic link libraries can be found.


The directories of the LIBPATH statement are separated by semicolons.

To add c:\emx\dll to the LIBPATH statement, append a semicolon -- if

there is not yet a semicolon -- to the end of the line of config.sys

that starts with


    LIBPATH=


Then, type the absolute name of the directory.  Example:


    LIBPATH=.;C:\OS2\DLL;C:\OS2\MDOS;C:\;C:\OS2\APPS\DLL;D:\EMX\DLL


Optionally, you can append a semicolon at the end.


Next, modify the line of config.sys starting with


    SET PATH=


to include the \emx\bin directory.  For instance, change


    SET PATH=C:\OS2;C:\OS2\SYSTEM;C:\OS2\MDOS\WINOS2;C:\OS2\INSTALL;

    C:\;C:\OS2\MDOS;C:\OS2\APPS


to


    SET PATH=C:\OS2;C:\OS2\SYSTEM;C:\OS2\MDOS\WINOS2;C:\OS2\INSTALL;

    C:\;C:\OS2\MDOS;C:\OS2\APPS;D:\EMX\BIN


As with LIBPATH, you have to put a semicolon between the path names

and a trailing semicolon is optional.  Note that the last two examples

are shown in two lines; in config.sys, however, the complete SET

statement must be put into one line.


You might want to add \emx\book to the BOOKSHELF environment variable

to simplify viewing the on-line documentation.  For instance, change

the line


    SET BOOKSHELF=C:\OS2\BOOK;


of your config.sys file to


    SET BOOKSHELF=C:\OS2\BOOK;C:\EMX\BOOK


as with PATH, you have to put a semicolon between the path names and a

trailing semicolon is optional.


Now, you should reboot to activate the changes to config.sys.  After

booting, run


    emxrev


to verify that the latest revision of emx is now active.


If OS/2 says


    SYS1804: The system cannot find the file EMX.


when running an emx program, you have not correctly set the LIBPATH

statement of config.sys.  See above for details.


When running an old program (which assumes that emx.dll creates a

stack object if the stack size is too small), you will get an error

message like


    emx.dll: Stack size too small.  Run

      emxstack -f D:\BIN\PROGRAM.EXE

    and try again.


Run emxstack as indicated by the error message to fix the stack size

of the program.  If you can't (because you don't have write permission

for the file), type


    set emxopt=-I


to make emx.dll ignore the problem.  However, the program will

probably crash due to insufficient stack size.  Using the -I option is

not recommended!



4 Installing the emx runtime package under DOS

==============================================



4.1 Summary for impatient DOS users

-----------------------------------


1.  Add \emx\bin to PATH or set EMX to point to \emx\bin\emx.exe


2.  If you are using a memory manager which implements DPMI, enable

    VCPI


3.  Remove BREAK=ON from config.sys


4.  Reboot



4.2 Detailed instructions for DOS users

---------------------------------------


emx programs for DOS come in two flavours: those which load emx.exe

from a separate file and those which have the emx runtime emx.exe

integrated in the executable file of the application program.


Before changing autoexec.bat and config.sys, make a backup copy of

these files!


If you want to use a program which loads emx.exe, you have to put

emx.exe into a directory which is listed in your PATH environment

variable or you have to change the PATH environment variable (in

autoexec.bat) to include the directory in which emx.exe can be found.

For instance, if your autoexec.bat file contains the line


    path c:\dos;d:\bin


you have installed the emx runtime on drive D, you should modify that

line to read


    path c:\dos;d:\bin;d:\emx\bin


You have to put a semicolon between the path names.


Alternatively, you can set an environment variable which directly

points to the emx.exe executable.  If you use this method, your

program can locate emx.exe more quickly.  If you have installed the

emx runtime on drive D:, you should add the following line to your

autoexec.bat file:


    set emx=d:\emx\bin\emx.exe


Note that a directory name is not sufficient -- you have to type the

complete path name of the emx.exe file.


Programs of the second flavour, having emx.exe integrated, don't

require \emx\bin added to the PATH environment variable or the EMX

environment variable being set.  The program itself, however, may need

changes to your autoexec.bat file.  See the documentation accompanying

the program.  The following steps are required for both flavours of

emx programs.


If you are using a memory manager (such as QEMM or EMM386 or 386max)

which implements DPMI (DOS Protected Mode Interface), you have to

change the invokation of that memory manager to enable VCPI as emx

does not support DPMI.  See the documentation of your memory for

details.  If your memory manager supports DPMI only (without VCPI),

you have to remove or disable the memory manager.  Alternatively, you

can use rsx, as indicated in section 6.3.  emx supports XMS and VCPI.


Examine your config.sys file: If there is a line


    BREAK=ON


in it, you should remove it as it causes trouble with emx and lots of

other programs.


If and only if you are using an `Intel Inboard 386/PC' expansion board

in your 8088-based PC, add the following line to autoexec.bat (it's

very unlikely that you are using such an expansion board):


    set emxopt=-m3


If the swap file (used to swap memory pages to disk when running out

of physical memory) should be in a specific directory or on a specific

disk drive, set the EMXTMP environment variable in autoexec.bat.

Example:


    set emxtmp=c:\tmp


Now, you should reboot to activate the changes to config.sys and

autoexec.bat.



5 Environment variables (OS/2 and DOS)

======================================


The operation of emx and emx programs is controlled by several

environment variables.  You might have to set one or more of the

following environment variables:


INIT    used by termcap to find termcap.dat


TERM    used by termcap to define the terminal type


EMXETC  used by termcap to find termcap.dat


EMXOPT  emx options (see below)


EMXSHELL

        overrides the COMSPEC environment variable.  You can use this

        to run an alternate command processor (shell) from emx

        programs


EMXPATH

        search path for programs (usually not relevant)


PATH    search path for program (used if EMXPATH fails)


TERMCAP

        used by termcap to find termcap.dat



5.1 Environment variables (DOS)

-------------------------------


EMX     path name of emx.exe, used by programs which are bound with

        emxl.exe (the emx loader) instead of emx.exe.  Set EMX to

        speed up loading of emx.exe or to load a specific version of

        emx.exe


EMXTMP  directory for the swap file


TMP     used if EMXTMP is not set



6 DOS Notes

===========



6.1 General notes

-----------------


- emx requires DOS 3.0 or later


- emx does not support DPMI


- emx does not support DESQview without VCPI (use QEMM-386 with

  DESQview)


- If emx doesn't work under DESQview (especially if it displays the

  message


      Nonmaskable interrupt (NMI)


  either set the protection level to 0 or use the WATCHDOG=0 option of

  QEMM-386.


- emx supports VCPI


- emx supports XMS.  Do not use emx with himem.sys 2.06 or earlier.


- emx checks for XMS version number 2.00 or later and for XMS driver

  revision 2.06 or later, as older himem.sys drivers don't work

  correctly.  You can override this check by using the -O emx option

  (for drivers using a different revision numbering scheme), but emx

  may not work with your XMS driver, anyway.  Actually, emx has not

  been tested with himem.sys 2.05; 2.04 fails, 2.06 works.


- emx supports vdisk.sys 3.3 and later and most other RAM disk drivers


- emx uses (or tries to use) all available memory, whether

  conventional, extended, or expanded memory.  If there isn't enough

  memory, emx will swap to disk.  The swap file will be created in the

  directory given by the EMXTMP environment variable.  If EMXTMP is

  not set, TMP will be used.  If both variables are not set, the swap

  file will be created in the root directory of the current drive.


- If a program uses floating point instructions and no numeric

  coprocessor (387) is installed, emx tries to load the FPU (floating

  point unit) emulator emxfpemu.  That file is first sought in the

  directory from which emx.exe was loaded (this does not apply if

  emx.exe is bound to the executable), then in the current working

  directory and the directories listed in the EMXPATH and PATH

  environment variables.  If emxfpemu cannot be found, the program

  will be aborted by signal SIGFPE.



6.2 Emergency exit

------------------


If the computer freezes while running emx, try hitting Ctrl-Break five

times in one scond.  That will terminate emx (and all emx processes

run by that instance of emx) unless it is blocked in a DOS call.  If

blocked in a DOS call, emx will terminate after return from that DOS

call.



6.3 Using rsx instead of emx

----------------------------


rsx is a DPMI-compliant DOS extender which is more or less compatible

to emx.  Moreover, rsx contains a floating point emulator.  rsx is

free software and has been written by Rainer Schnittker.  As of this

writing, rsx is assumed to be available for anonymous ftp as


    ftp.uni-bielefeld.de: /pub/systems/msdos/misc/dpmigcc5.zip

    ftp.uni-stuttgart.de: /pub/systems/os2/emx-0.9c/contrib/dpmigcc5.zip

    ftp.leo.org:          /pub/comp/os/os2/gnu/emx+gcc/contrib/dpmigcc5.zip


If the emx loader emxl.exe finds a DPMI server but no VCPI server, it

tries to run rsx.exe instead of emx.exe.  The RSX environment variable

will be used instead of the EMX environment variable for locating

rsx.exe.


To load rsx.exe instead of emx.exe even if there is a DPMI server and

a VCPI server (for instance if you need the floating point emulation

of rsx), set the EMX environment variable to point to rsx.exe.  Note

that rsx needs a DPMI server.



7 emx options

=============


You can customize emx by setting the EMXOPT environment variable.

This environment variable contains a list of options, similar to

command line options.  The options must be separated by at least one

blank.  Example:


    set emxopt=-c -h40



7.1 emx options (OS/2)

----------------------


-c      Disable core dumps caused by signals and exceptions


-h#     Set OS/2 file handle limit to #.  The number # must be between

        10 and 65536


-n      Suppress popups for exceptions.  As emx.dll displays an

        appropriate error message and dumps core, popups are not

        required


-q      All command line arguments passed to child processes will be

        quoted unconditionally, that is, wildcard expansion and

        response files won't work in child processes of processes for

        which the -q option is in effect


-r*     Prepend drive letter * to absolute path names.  If a path name

        starts with / but does not start with //, /dev/ or /pipe/, *

        followed by a colon will be prepended.  If -rd has been given,

        the file name \mydir\abc will be translated to d:\mydir\abc.

        Note: this option can cause unexpected effects


-t*     Truncate file names to 8.3 format.  Each part of a pathname is

        truncated to 8.3 format by taking the first 8 characters

        before the dot and the first 3 characters after the dot.  This

        is useful to compile programs on a FAT filesystem with minimal

        changes.


        Without argument, -t enables truncation on all drives and for

        UNC pathnames.


        The -t option takes an optional argument, listing the names of

        the drives on which file names should be truncated.  The

        special drive name `/' controls whether to truncate UNC

        pathnames.  With `-tc/', for instance, file names on drive C

        and UNC pathnames will be truncated.


        If the argument of the -t option is `-', truncation is

        disabled for all drives and for UNC pathnames.  This is the

        default setting.  If the argument starts with `-', truncation

        is disabled on all drives listed.  With `-t -t-d', for

        instance, UNC pathnames and file names on all drives except

        drive D will be truncated.


-x      Don't suppress wildcard expansion and response files if the

        `MKS Korn shell' method of passing command line arguments is

        used


-E      Run debuggee in same session (window) as debugger


-I      Don't complain about programs having too small a stack size.

        Without the -I option, emx.dll displays an error message for

        those programs, telling how to run emxstack to fix the stack

        size.  With the -I option, the program is run despite of the

        problem.  However, the program will probably crash due to

        insufficient stack size.  Using the -I option is not

        recommended!


-K      Don't use DosKillThread.  Due to bugs in OS/2, DosKillThread

        may cause problems.  emx.dll automatically avoids using

        DosKillThread for OS/2 2.1 and older.  For OS/2 2.11 and

        later, you can use the -K option to disable usage of

        DosKillThread.  Currently, DosKillThread is not used by

        emx.dll and this option does not have any effect.



7.2 emx options (DOS)

---------------------


-c      Disable core dumps caused by signals and exceptions


-d      Don't use extended memory


-e      Redirect the standard error handle (2) to standard output (1)


-h#     Set DOS file handle limit to #.  The number # must be between

        10 and 65536.  This option is ignored for DOS versions earlier

        than 3.30.  This option does not change the emx limit for the

        number of files per process -- that limit is always 40


-m1     Running on Fujitsu FMR70 (not implemented yet)


-m2     Running on NEC PC-98 (not implemented yet)


-m3     Running on Intel Inboard 386/PC


-o      Send the register dump of an exception to stdout.  Without -o,

        the register dump is sent to the CON device.  You need -o for

        redirecting the register dump to a file.


        emx now creates a core dump file (named `core') instead of a

        register dump.  Please keep that file in case the author of

        the program needs it for debugging.


-q      All command line arguments passed to child processes will be

        quoted unconditionally, that is, wildcard expansion and

        response files won't work in child processes of processes for

        which the -q option is in effect


-r*     Prepend drive letter * to absolute path names.  If a path name

        starts with / but does not start with //, /dev/ or /pipe/, *

        followed by a colon will be prepended.  If -rd has been given,

        the file name \mydir\abc will be translated to d:\mydir\abc.

        Note: this option can cause unexpected effects


-t*     Truncate file names to 8.3 format.  Each part of a pathname is

        truncated to 8.3 format by taking the first 8 characters

        before the dot and the first 3 characters after the dot.  This

        is useful to compile programs on a FAT filesystem with minimal

        changes.


        Without argument, -t enables truncation on all drives and for

        UNC pathnames.


        The -t option takes an optional argument, listing the names of

        the drives on which file names should be truncated.  The

        special drive name `/' controls whether to truncate UNC

        pathnames.  With `-tc/', for instance, file names on drive C

        and UNC pathnames will be truncated.


        If the argument of the -t option is `-', truncation is

        disabled for all drives and for UNC pathnames.  This is the

        default setting.  If the argument starts with `-', truncation

        is disabled on all drives listed.  With `-t -t-d', for

        instance, UNC pathnames and file names on all drives except

        drive D will be truncated.


-E      Don't check for 387 coprocessor.  Assume no coprocessor is

        present


-O      Override XMS version check.  By default, emx checks for XMS

        version number 2.00 or later and for XMS driver revision 2.06

        or later, as older himem.sys drivers don't work correctly.

        You can override this check by giving the -O option (for

        drivers using a different revision numbering scheme), but emx

        may not work with your XMS driver, anyway.  Actually, emx has

        not been tested with himem.sys 2.05; 2.04 fails, 2.06 works


-V      Display emx version.  On program start, the emx version will

        be displayed


-X      Disable usage of XMS memory.  Usage of XMS memory with VCPI is

        a new feature of emx.  If this happens to cause trouble, use

        the -X option.



8 The emxstack tool

===================


The emxstack tool is used for displaying and fixing the stack size.

Old programs assume that emx.dll allocates a stack object if the stack

size is too small.  As emx.dll no longer does this, the stack size of

the programs must be fixed.


    emxstack <command> [<options>] <file>...


The following commands are available:


-c


    Check whether the stack size should be fixed.  For each file, if

    the stack size is too small, a message will be displayed.  If the

    stack size is big enough, no message will be displayed.


-d


    Display the stack size.  For each file, the stack size in KByte

    will be displayed.


-f


    Fix the stack size.  For each file, the stack size is fixed if it

    is too small.


-s<size>


    Set the stack size.  For each file, the stack size is set to

    <size> KByte.


-u<size>


    Update the stack size.  For each file, the stack size is set to

    <size> KByte if it less than <size> KByte.  If the stack size is

    not less than <size> KByte, the stack size won't be changed.


The following options are available:


-p


    Act on all files in the PATH.  The command is applied to each file

    in a directory listed in the PATH environment variable.  No file

    names must be given on the command line.


-q


    Be quiet.  No messages will be displayed.  However, error messages

    won't be suppressed.


-v


    Be verbose.  Display additional messages.


Example:


    emxstack -f *.exe



9 The emxupd tool

=================


The emxupd tool can replace (and delete) DLLs which are currently in

use.  (It can do so for EXE files also.)  The old version of the DLL

stays in memory and in use for programs which currently use it until

all applications which use that DLL terminate.  Then, the new DLL will

be used.  Rebooting also switches to the new DLL.



9.1 Replacing a DLL

-------------------


To replace a DLL, type


    emxupd <source_file> <target_path>


This command copies <source_file> to the directory or file

<target_path>.  Examples:


    emxupd c:\tmp\emx.dll c:\emx\dll


This command copies c:\tmp\emx.dll to c:\emx\dll\emx.dll.


    emxupd abc.dll d:\dll\new.dll


This command copies abc.dll to d:\dll\new.dll.



9.2 Deleting a DLL

------------------


To delete a DLL, type


    emxupd -d <old_file>


where <old_file> is the path name of the DLL to delete.



9.3 Unpacking DLLs from a ZIP file and installing them with emxupd

------------------------------------------------------------------


To unpack all DLLs from a ZIP file and install them in a directory

with emxupd, replacing DLLs even if they are in use, type


    emxuzdll <zip_file> <dll_dir>


where <zip_file> is the path name of the ZIP file to unpack the DLLs

from and <dll_dir> is the directory where all the DLLs of the ZIP file

should be put.  emxuzdll can be used only if there are no DLL files in

the current directory.



10 Troubleshooting

==================


This section shows how to solve common problems involving the emx

runtime.



10.1 Warning message `WARNING: emx 0.9c or later required'

----------------------------------------------------------


If this message appears, an out-of-date version of emx.dll is active.

Make sure that the latest version of emx.dll is in a directory pointed

to by the LIBPATH statement in your config.sys file.  Use


    emxrev -p c:\config.sys


to list all emx dynamic link libraries reachable by the LIBPATH

statement of c:\config.sys (use the drive letter of your boot drive

instead of c:).  To simplify things, you should keep only one version

of each DLL.  Older programs work with newer emx DLLs, but not vice

versa.



10.2 unzip.exe says `cannot create emx/dll/emx.dll'

---------------------------------------------------


This happens when you try to unpack emxrt.zip while a program is

active which uses emx.dll.  Terminate all programs which use emx.dll

and try again.  If you run emxrev, the command interpreter keeps

emx.dll loaded until terminated.  Therefore, you should close all OS/2

windows and full-screen sessions in which you have run emxrev.  All

this also applies to emxlibcm.dll etc.



10.3 emx.dll cannot be deleted, renamed or overwritten

------------------------------------------------------


See the previous problem.



10.4 Error message `SYS1804: The system cannot find the file EMX.'

------------------------------------------------------------------


You have not correctly set the LIBPATH statement of config.sys,

therefore emx.dll could not be found.



10.5 Error message `rsx not found, DPMI not supported by emx'

-------------------------------------------------------------


The current version of emx cannot use DPMI.  Therefore, the loader

tried to use rsx instead, but couldn't find rsx.  Remedy: install rsx

or end the DPMI server (MS Windows).



10.6 Error message `emx.dll: Stack size too small...'

-----------------------------------------------------


You tried to run an old program (which assumes that emx.dll creates a

stack object if the stack size is too small).


Run emxstack as indicated by the error message to fix the stack size

of the program.  If you can't (because you don't have write permission

for the file), type


    set emxopt=-I


to make emx.dll ignore the problem.  However, the program will

probably crash due to insufficient stack size.  Using the -I option is

not recommended!



10.7 DOS message `Sector not found'

-----------------------------------


DOS seems to display that message if a file is opened twice (perhaps

one handle for reading, one for writing).  For instance, this happens

when GCC runs out of temporary files.  Look for files named like

cca00002, ccz00002 etc. (the digits may vary) in your temporary

directory and delete them.



11 emx messages

===============



11.1 emx messages (OS/2)

------------------------


core dumped


    The program cannot continue due to a fatal error (exception).  An

    image of the program's memory has been written to a file named

    `core'.  Please keep that file in case the author of the program

    needs it for debugging.


emx.dll: Stack size too small...


    You tried to run an old program (which assumes that emx.dll

    creates a stack object if the stack size is too small).  You

    should run emxstack to fix the stack size.


Invalid option in EMXOPT


    An option in the EMXOPT environement variable is not understood by

    emx.


Invalid syscall function code


    The program run by emx has called an invalid system function.

    Most likely, you're using an emx.dll which is out of date.


WARNING: emx 0.9c or later required


    The program requires emx.dll 0.9c or later.  However, an older

    version of emx.dll is active.  Make sure that the latest version

    of emx.dll is in a directory pointed to by the LIBPATH statement

    in your config.sys file.  Use


        emxrev -p c:\config.sys


    to list all emx dynamic link libraries reachable by the LIBPATH

    statement of c:\config.sys (use the drive letter of your boot

    drive instead of c:).  To simplify things, you should keep only

    one version of each DLL.  Older programs work with newer emx DLLs,

    but not vice versa.



11.2 emx messages (DOS)

-----------------------


Abnormal program termination


    The program received the SIGABRT signal.  The abort() function was

    called or SIGABRT was raised.


Bad environment


    The program name could not be found in the environment segment or

    the environment segment is longer than 32768 bytes.  This should

    not happen in practice.


Cannot create swap file


    The swap file could not be created.  Remedy: make sure the swap

    file can be created in the directory given by the EMXTMP (or TMP)

    environment variable.  If EMXTMP and TMP are not set, emx will

    create the swap file in the root directory of the current drive.


Cannot enable A20


    emx tried to enable address line A20 and failed.  Remedy: contact

    the author.


Cannot enable A20 via XMS


    emx tried to enable address line A20 by calling the XMS driver.

    Unfortunately, A20 couldn't be enabled.  Remedy: unknown.


Cannot open program file


    The program file given on the emx command line could not be found

    or opened.  Remedy: type the correct file name.  (This should not

    happen with bound programs.)


Cannot read program file


    An error occured while reading the program file.  Remedy: make

    sure the program file given on the emx command line is valid (this

    does not apply to bound programs).  Maybe some other program

    accesses that file.


core dumped


    The program cannot continue due to a fatal error (exception).  An

    image of the program's memory has been written to a file named

    `core'.  Please keep that file in case the author of the program

    needs it for debugging.


DPMI not supported


    The current version of emx cannot use DPMI.  Maybe some future

    version will do.  Remedy: end the DPMI server (MS Windows) or use

    rsx.


emx not found


    The emx loader (emxl.exe) failed to find emx.exe.  Make sure that

    emx.exe is in a directory listed in the PATH environment variable.

    Alternatively, you can set the EMX environment variable to the

    complete path name of emx.exe.


Exception ...


    The program run by emx tried to do something which is considered

    illegal by the processor or by emx.  Remedy: report to the

    supplier of the program.


Illegal moucall function


    The program run by emx has called an invalid system function.

    Remedy: report to the supplier of the program.


Illegal syscall function


    The program run by emx has called an invalid system function.

    Remedy: report to the supplier of the program.


Illegal viocall function


    The program run by emx has called an invalid system function.

    Remedy: report to the supplier of the program.


Invalid arguments for DOS function xx


    The program run by emx has used invalid arguments for a system

    function.  Remedy: report to the supplier of the program.


Invalid emx option


    An option in EMXOPT or set by emxbind is not understood by emx.

    Remedy: check EMXOPT.  Use emxbind -i to display the options set

    by emxbind.


Invalid program file


    The program file given on the emx command line (or bound to emx)

    is corrupt.  Remedy: reload the program from diskette.  If this

    doesn't help you should contact the supplier of the program.


Invalid special function code: xx


    The program run by emx has called an invalid system function.

    Remedy: report to the supplier of the program.


Linear address space exhausted


    The program run by emx uses far too much memory.  Remedy: complain

    to the author.


Nonmaskable interrupt (NMI) at xxxx:yyyyyyyy


    A nonmaskable interrupt occured.  Maybe this is due to a memory

    error.  Remedy: if you are using DESQview, either set the

    protection level to 0 or use the WATCHDOG=0 option of QEMM-386.

    Otherwise, run a program for testing memory.


Out of memory


    There isn't enough memory for running emx.  Remedy: remove some

    drivers and/or resident programs.  Or add memory to your machine.


Out of stacks


    emx ran out of local stacks.  Remedy: complain to the author.


Out of memory or swap space


    emx cannot write to the swap file because the disk is full.

    Remedy: make sure there is enough space on the drive used for the

    swap file.  Use the EMXTMP (or TMP) environment variable to tell

    emx where to create the swap file.  If neither EMXTMP nor TMP is

    set, emx will create the swap file in the root directory of the

    current drive.


Out of swap space


    emx cannot write to the swap file because the disk is full.

    Remedy: make sure there is enough space on the drive used for the

    swap file.  Use the EMXTMP (or TMP) environment variable to tell

    emx where to create the swap file.  If neither EMXTMP nor TMP is

    set, emx will create the swap file in the root directory of the

    current drive.


Process terminated by SIGINT


    You have stopped the program by hitting Ctrl-C or Ctrl-Break.


Process terminated by SIG...


    The program has been stopped due to a signal or exception.

    Usually, this indicates a fatal error in the program.


Program aborted


    You have aborted the program by answering `Abort' after a critical

    error had occured.


rsx not found, DPMI not supported by emx


    The current version of emx cannot use DPMI.  Therefore, the loader

    tried to use rsx instead, but couldn't find rsx.  Remedy: install

    rsx or end the DPMI server (MS Windows).


Swap file I/O error


    emx couldn't read or write the swap file.


This program does not run in DOS mode of OS/2


    DOS emulation of OS/2 doesn't support emx.  Remedy: boot DOS or

    run the program in a OS/2 window


This program requires an 80386 CPU


    You need an 80386DX, 80386SX, i486 or later CPU for running emx.

    Remedy: get another computer.


This program requires DOS 3.0 or later


    If emx is bound with an application program into one executable,

    DOS 3.0 or later is required for execution.


Too many processes


    emx supports up to 4 processes.  You tried to start 5 or more

    processes.


Unexpected interrupt


    This cannot happen.  Remedy: report to the author.


Unsupported VDISK.SYS version


    emx doesn't support the vdisk.sys device driver you are using.

    Remedy: remove VDISK.SYS or use a different version.  emx should

    work with vdisk.sys 3.3 or later.


Unsupported XMS version


    emx requires himem.sys 2.06 or later (older versions are too

    buggy).  Remedy: get a newer himem.sys.  If you are not using

    himem.sys, use the -O option of emx and tell the author whether

    this works or not.


Unusable interrupt vector mappings set by VCPI server


    The configuration of the VCPI server (EMS driver) is illegal.

    Remedy: read the manual of the EMS driver.


Use emxbind


    You tried to run emxl.exe, which doesn't make sense.  emxl.exe is

    designed to be bound into an executable file by emxbind.


Virtual mode not supported without VCPI


    A VCPI server is required to run emx if the CPU is in virtual

    mode.  You will get this message if you're using an EMS driver

    (EMS emulator) which doesn't support VCPI or if you have disabled

    EMS.  Remedy: remove the EMS driver, use an EMS driver which

    supports VCPI or enable EMS if it has been disabled (for instance,

    remove the NOEMS keyword from the command line of the EMS driver).


Wrong emx version


    The version of emx.exe does not match the version the program was

    compiled for.  Remedy: use the copy of emx.exe that comes with the

    program.  If you are using different programs which need different

    versions of emx.exe, use the EMX environment variable to set the

    path name of the correct version of emx.exe before running a

    program which requires a version different from the default

    emx.exe.  You can also use emxbind -u to put the correct version

    of emx.exe into the executable files.



12 Obtaining the complete emx package

=====================================


emx is available for anonymous ftp on


    ftp.uni-stuttgart.de: /pub/systems/os2/emx-0.9c

    ftp-os2.cdrom.com:    /pub/os2/lang/emx09c

    ftp-os2.nmsu.edu:     /os2/unix/emx09c

    src.doc.ic.ac.uk:     /pub/packages/os2/32bit/unix/emx09c

    ftp.leo.org:          /pub/comp/os/os2/gnu/emx+gcc



13 The author of emx

====================


The author of emx is


    Eberhard Mattes

    Teckstrasse 81                                      (TeX: Teckstra\ss e)

    D-71696 Moeglingen                                  (TeX: M\"oglingen)

    Germany


Internet: mattes@azu.informatik.uni-stuttgart.de  (subject to change)


No telephone calls please!  It must be stressed that the author does

not reply to letters if you don't include return postage

(international postal reply coupon if you are outside Germany) and a

self-addressed envelope.


--------------------------- END OF EMXRT.DOC --------------------------------


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